India, the world’s second most populous nation, has a huge population problem. Everyone understands and accepts that. Like someone I spoke to recently said, "It is there and nothing can be done about it." This article argues that India has not one but three basic problems when it comes to population. Further, it makes the case that hidden in the resolution of the problems are huge business opportunities and that it makes sense for business houses and entrepreneurs to tackle the problem along with the government and NGOs.
|The three challenges|
|1 Reducing population growth rates|
|2 Reducing infant mortality|
|3 Increasing life expectancy|
1. Reducing population growth rates
The first of India’s three population problems is the most accepted one—the huge population. At 1.12 billion in 2007, our population is only marginally behind China’s 1.33 billion and way ahead of third placed USA’s 304 million.
As can be seen from the graph, while the large population base itself is a problem, the bigger issue is that population growth has maintained a steady pace over the years. The first step here is to bring the population growth rate to zero so that the country’s population remains steady and does not grow further.
|The six most populous countries in the world. Even if India were to reduce its population growth rate down to zero (population remaining constant at current levels), the population problem that we are facing will not go away and its rank as the second most populous country is unlikely to change.|
Now, how do we reduce population growth? See box on replacement fertility rate to get an overview of how much the population growth has to be curtailed by. The traditional approach has been the use of contraceptive methods and a move towards planned pregnancy. The methods for this have been improving education and awareness and improving the access to and use of contraceptive methods.
Usage of contraception
Traditionally, the usage of contraception is popularized by the government and by NGOs. In spite of many years of continued attempt, a majority of the population does not use contraception. And even in the usage, there are skews.
|A majority of the population does not use any contraceptive methods. And of those that use, a majority (29.6 +0.8 = 30.4%) again are sterilized. Sterilization is normally a final state of contraception. So, those using temporary methods of contraception are just 13.4% of the population. The opportunity and market for improving this rate even slightly is huge.|
written by nfl football jerseys, October 08, 2010
written by bkbrao, May 31, 2010
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